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A standard fifteen Mysteries of the Rosary, based on the long-standing custom, was established by Pope Pius V in the 16th century, grouping the mysteries in three sets: the Joyful Mysteries, the Sorrowful Mysteries, and the Glorious Mysteries. In 2002 Pope John Paul II said that it is fitting that a new set of five be added, called the Luminous Mysteries, bringing the total number of mysteries to twenty, although he did not create these mysteries. They had been used by Holy Cross father Patrick Peyton , the "Rosary Priest" of the 20th Century.
For over four centuries, the rosary has been promoted by several popes as part of the veneration of Mary in Roman Catholicism ,  and consisting essentially in meditation on the life of Christ.  The rosary also represents the Roman Catholic emphasis on "participation in the life of Mary, whose focus was Christ", and the Mariological theme "to Christ through Mary". 
The rosary is part of Catholic veneration of Mary, which has been promoted by numerous popes. In the 16th century, Pope Pius V associated the rosary with the General Roman Calendar by instituting the Feast of Our Lady of Victory (later changed to Our Lady of the Rosary ), which is celebrated on 7 October.